Welcome to Protoball

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Supporting Researchers and Writers on Baseball’s Origins.

Reconsidering Protoball.org

(User Feedback Welcomed)

Protoball welcomes input from current and potential site users on initiatives that might make protoball.org more responsive to their research interests.

In the past decade or so, due to major data contributions from several origins researchers, the site has expanded to include sourced accounts of over 1750 chronology entries, many thousands of early games of modern base ball, about 6000 early clubs, a registry of nearly 300 different baserunning games, a few hundred key reference works on early ballplaying, etc. Dave Anderson, Protoball’s site wizard, has found innovative ways to search and display this somewhat unruly mound of basic data. (Try playing with favorite search terms at http://protoball.org/Special:EnhancedSearch.)

We’d appreciate your candid ideas about ways to make Protoball a better tool for baseball historian and writers. Please send your ideas and views of the site’s limitations to comments@protoball.org or to Lmccray<at>mit.edu.

  • Bruce Allardice
  • Ralph Carhart
  • Jan Finkel
  • Larry McCray
  • Bob Tholkes

Current Resources On Protoball.org

The Protoball Chronology covers memorable mileposts in the evolution of ballgames from Ancient Times to 1870, just before the first professional baseball league began.

Our PrePro Baseball is a working database of several thousand clubs and games, mostly in the Origins Era (before 1872). Its interactive maps may help you visualize the spread of baseball over time. It is designed so that individual club pages can link to a club's games, players, and field locations. For an example, see the Knickerbocker Club here.

The Games Tabulation (version 2.0) is a record of over 1300 ballgames in various parts of the US from 1845 to 1860. It was compiled by the late Craig Waff᾿s careful and path-breaking research. More recently, Bob Tholkes has tabulated key data from over 5000 early games, mostly from the 1860s.

Base Ball Players Pocket Companion.jpg 1859 Base Ball Players’ Pocket Companion

The Glossary of Games provides a short description of 294 baseball-like games. The Glossary includes baseball's likely predecessor games and later games that derive from baseball.

The Bibliography is a list of publications you can use to explore the origins of ball games and baseball in depth. Some of these publications are available online. For sources that are in Protoball's Buzz McCray Collection, we can, via email and phone, help you determine what their content is.

A listing of fellow origins enthusiasts and contributors can be found in our Diggers section. You can read news about them and their work in the now-discontinuedNext Destin'd Post. Several Diggers have contributed informal Essays relating to baseball's origins.

We offer an Enhanced Search for complex full-text searches on much of the information on the site. You can save your searches, pick out important articles, and share them with other researchers.

On a whim, we have collected information on as many baserunning games as we can find on our Glossary of Games. About half of them preceded the rise of the modern "New York" game ob bae ball in the 1850s.

Articles

Here are 3 of our latest articles:

  1. Number of Known BB Clubs in 40 Largest US Cities, 1870 3.0 - by Bruce Allardice in September 2020
  2. Density of Known BB Clubs in 40 Largest US Cities, 1870 - by Bruce Allardice in August 2020
  3. The Early Sporting Press in New England 1.0 - by Donna Halper in April 2020

Here are 3 randomly selected articles:

  1. Old old games - by Larry McCray in December 2019
  2. Search Terms - by Larry McCray in December 2019
  3. NER Project Overview - by Larry McCray in December 2019
  4. The Massachusetts Game - by Larry McCray in December 2019
  5. Research Bibliography for Early Base Ball - by Bill Lyons in December 2019
  6. Wicket Ball - by Larry McCray in December 2019
  7. Emperics - by Larry McCray in December 2019
  8. Length of Games, 1860-1865 1.0 - by Bob Tholkes in October 2019
  9. Sons of Liberty - by Tom Gilbert in June 2019
  10. Ballplaying by Civil War Soldiers 1.0 - by Bruce Allardice in September 2018
  11. Very Early (pre-1857) Rules on Base Advancement After Caught Fly Balls - by Richard Hershberger in June 2018
  12. Baseball Making Notes - by Corky Gaskell in March 2018
  13. Ten-Position Base Ball - by Mark Brunke in February 2018
  14. Feeder and Rounders, 1841 - by Bill Hicklin in March 2016
  15. 1854 Unified Kinickerbocker-Eagle-Gotham Rules - by Bill Hicklin in March 2016
  16. La balle empoisonnée - by Bill Hicklin in March 2016
  17. The 20 Rules of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club - by Bill Hicklin in March 2016
  18. 1860 NABBP Rules - by Bill Hicklin in March 2016
  19. Rules of the Massachusetts Association of Base Ball Players - by Bill Hicklin in March 2016
  20. Englische Base-ball - by Bill Hicklin in March 2016
  21. Early Evidence on Base Stealing - by Richard Hershberger in February 2016
  22. The Play-Testing of Early Base Ball Rule Modifications, version 1.0 - by Richard Hershberger in January 2016
  23. Cricket and the Rise of Baseball - by Bruce Allardice in June 2015
  24. Beachville Deconstruction (The New York Game Comes to Canada) - by Bill Humber in May 2015
  25. Uniforms - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  26. Playing to Win - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  27. Base Ball Fever - by Jeffrey Kittel in September 2014
  28. Gambling's Role - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  29. Club Makeup - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  30. Patterns of Spread - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  31. The Big Tours - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  32. Predecessor Pastimes - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  33. The Beneficiaries - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  34. Accounts - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  35. Competing Pastimes - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  36. The Grounds - by Marty Payne in September 2014
  37. Media Effects - by Larry McCray in September 2014
  38. The Spread of Early Base Ball in Illinois to 1870 - by Bruce Allardice in August 2014
  39. The Backstop - by Richard Hershberger in July 2014
  40. Judgment! - by Richard Hershberger in July 2014
  41. Called Pitches - by Richard Hershberger in July 2014
  42. Pitchers Covering First - by Richard Hershberger in July 2014
  43. Protoball Search Aid - by Larry McCray in March 2014
  44. Spirit Letters From X, 1857-8 - by Bob Tholkes in February 2014
  45. Stoolball Today -- The Rejuvenation of an Ancient Pastime - by John and Kay Price in November 2013
  46. For Fun and Health -- That's Why She Played - by Debbie Shattuck in October 2013
  47. 19CBB Highlights, August September 2013 - by Bob Tholkes in October 2013
  48. Internet Search Tips - by Bruce Allardice in October 2013
  49. Richard Hershberger Interview, October 2013 - by Protoball Functionary in October 2013
  50. Bruce Allardice Find Stories, October 2013 - by Bruce Allardice in October 2013
  51. Sliding - by Richard Hershberger in October 2013
  52. The Spread of Base Ball, 1859 - 1870 - by Bruce Allardice in September 2013
  53. Next Destin'd Post, August 2013 - by Larry McCray in August 2013
  54. Interview with 2013 SABR-Origins Chair Bill Johnson - by Protoball Functionary in August 2013
  55. 1857 Rules - by Jeffrey Kittel in July 2013
  56. Interview with Bill Ryczek - by Protoball Functionary in June 2013
  57. The Next Destin'd Post, June 2013 - by Larry McCray in June 2013
  58. Sam Marchiano and the 1755 Bray Diary Find - by Protoball Functionary in June 2013
  59. Don't Forget the Girls - by Debbie Shattuck in June 2013
  60. Performing Logic Searches on Protoball - by Dave Anderson in June 2013
  61. 19CBB Digest, April-May 2013 - by Bob Tholkes in June 2013
  62. 1845 Knickerbocker Rules - by Jeffrey Kittel in April 2013
  63. 19CBB Digest, March 2013 - by Bob Tholkes in April 2013
  64. Multi-word Searches on Protoball - by David Anderson in April 2013
  65. Randall Brown's Find of the Wheaton Account -- Before the Knickerbockers - by Randall Brown in April 2013
  66. Interview with Peter Morris - by Protoball Functionary in April 2013
  67. New England Woman Observes Ball Play in Norfolk, Virginia in 1802 - by Tom Altherr in April 2013
  68. Next Destin'd Post, April 2013 - by Larry McCray in April 2013
  69. Irish Rounders (Burman's Report) - by Howard Burman in March 2013
  70. New Englander Confronts Impious Sunday Ball-playing in Virginia - by Tom Altherr in March 2013
  71. Linking Clubs to Ballgames - by Dave Anderson in February 2013
  72. Postings to 19CBB, Jan. - Feb. 2013 - by Bob Tholkes in February 2013
  73. Dave's Tip No. 1 -- Using "Site Search" and "Enhanced Search" - by Dave Anderson in February 2013
  74. An Interview with David Block - by Protoball Functionary in February 2013
  75. Tom Altherr Contemplates His Favorite Finds - by Tom Altherr in February 2013
  76. A Place Leavel Enough to Play Ball - by Tom Altherr in February 2013
  77. The Next Destin'd Post, January 2013 - by Larry McCray in January 2013
  78. The Story of George Thompson’s 1823 Find --- Base Ball in New York City - by George Thompson in January 2013
  79. A New Find on Early Wicket and Old Fashioned Base Ball - by Tom Altherr in January 2013
  80. Bob Tholkes Condenses Key 19CBB Postings in December 2012 - by Bob Tholkes in January 2013
  81. The Story of George Thompson’s 1823 Find -- "Base Ball" in NYC! - by George Thompson in January 2013
  82. The Spread of Base Ball in the Pacific Northwest - by Mark Brunke in January 2013
  83. Interview with John Thorn, Official Historian of Major League Baseball - by Protoball Functionary in January 2013
  84. "A Good Many Different Kinds of Ball" - by Tom Altherr in January 2013
  85. What Was The Massachusetts Game, Anyway? - by Jeffrey Kittel in December 2012
  86. What Was Rounders, Anyway? - by Larry McCray, Jeffrey Kittel in November 2012
  87. Early Championships - by Larry McCray in October 2012
  88. What Was Town Ball, Anyway? - by Larry McCray, Jeffrey Kittel in October 2012
  89. Ballplaying in Civil War Camps - by Larry McCray in July 2009
  90. The Evolution of the Baseball Up To 1872 - by Rob Loeffler in March 2007

Conditions of Use

Users are encouraged to freely use information on this web site. When that information is found to be useful in drafting published work, we ask that they acknowledge the Protoball Project in their writing, and supply the site's URL -- http://protoball.org -- when possible, in their citations.

Further Information

For more information about the evolution of Protoball Project, its policies, and resources, see our About page.

Contact Larry McCray of the Protoball Project at with any questions or contributions.

Features in Development

Please tell us if you see that new features could make the site more useful to you. Would a User Forum for site-user commentary make sense? Should we highlight "Most Wanted" data?

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1867 Star Club tobacco card