21st Century Townball

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Game 21st Century Townball
Game Family Baseball Baseball
Location California, Michigan, Oregon
Regions US
Eras Contemporary, Derivative, Post-1900
Invented Yes

This game has evolved from the guidance of Daniel Jones in California.  It is a blend of baseball predecessor games (citing the Massachusetts Game -- "TMG" below) with aspects of early town ball and cricket.

(A background account is included in the Supplemental Text field, below.)  

The game's expansion as of 2022 is also included there.


From the developer of the game, Daniel Jones, in 2017:

"Some features of 21st Century Townball:

1. No foul balls (like TMG - the Massachusetts Game).

2. Stakes, but no base lines (like TMG).

3. Pegging the runners allowed (like TMG).

4. No set batting order (can change each round) (unique).

5. Stakes are 42, 68, 110, 110, 110 feet away, from first to fifth, respectively, in a (Fibonacci) spiral (Similar formation to TMG, but better geometry).

6. A “zone” behind the batter. If the pitch hits it, you are out (like cricket or stoolball).

7. If you hit the ball and don’t run, a strike is called against you (similar to cricket with limited overs).

8. A swing and a miss is only a strike if the catcher catches it (like TMG).

9. Three strikes and you are out. Third strike hit, batter obligated to run (unique, similar to TMG).

10. First team to eight runs, win by five, cap at thirteen, wins the game (similar to TMG).

11. 13 players per side (similar to TMG).


1860 baseball used (developed by Eric Miklich).

1930’s gloves only (or similar size)

bamboo bats recommended (because the ball is a little heavier)"




Email from Daniel Jones to Protoball, April 30, 2018.

The project website is at  https://sites.google.com/mail.fresnostate.edu/21ctownball



A video of the game is at: 

http://ds.uhs.csufresno.edu/video/websiteMedia/townball16.mp4  [loads slowly 9/8/2107]


Some particularly interesting variants from baseball include [note that key cricket characteristics are retained]:


[] No foul balls [and no foul territory]

[] Plugging of runners is allowed

[] Basepath distance progresses  from from 42' to 110'feet sequentially

[] Batters defend a "zone" as cricket batters defend a wicket

[] Optional running except for third strike.

[] No set batting order -- can vary inning to inning


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Supplemental Text


[ From Daniel Jones email to Protoball, August 2017]

Hi, My name is Daniel Jones. I am a math teacher, a writer, and a vintage baseball enthusiast.

As you know, there is a hunger in the hearts of many Americans. I have experienced it. I have seen it. And I am sure that you all have as well.

All of us have turned to vintage baseball in an effort to satisfy the craving that modern baseball has left in us. I would suspect that this is the reason for explosion that has taken place recently in the growing number of vintage baseball leagues across the country and baseball research organizations such as yours.

It has occurred to me over the past two decades of thought and trial-and-error that we have an opportunity to harness that longing and to organize these efforts in such a way as to offer to the American Public something that it greatly needs right now. Something that hits home as part of what it really means to be American. 

I propose that the solution does indeed reside in the 19th century. But it isn’t baseball. And it isn’t cricket either…

I have been a baseball player my whole life. Somewhere in my late 20's I came to admit something that I never imagined coming out of my mouth. Something that my friends growing up would often tell me, only to incur my passionate defense of my favorite game.

Baseball... dare I say it... is boring.

At some point I switched to cricket. I found the game much more satisfying. The no-foul-balls aspect is really hard to beat. You can see it in the fans too. After all, it isn't for no reason that cricket is, after soccer, the second most widely played sport in the world... 

For a while, I thought that I had finally found what I was looking for. A game that was easy to organize a pickup game for, and that used "the whole field," so to speak, in a way that was intuitive, primitive, fun.

In 2009 I started a cricket club at the school that I teach at. I have had a very large following among the students there since that time; other students also trying to satisfy the itch.

But there was still something missing. What I love most about baseball is the baserunning. I wished there was a way to combine the baserunning of baseball with the playability and primitiveness of cricket.

In 2012 the dean of the school, being very happy with what I was doing with the students with cricket, asked me to think of another sports-type elective to teach. It didn’t take long for me to decide on a title: “Origins of the American Pastime.”

I had been brainstorming for a few years by this time about bat-and-ball games in general, and what exactly a game would look like that would satisfy the craving within me and in others for the perfect bat-and-ball experience. So this was a perfect opportunity for me to flush out some ideas. For this class, I chose 10 bat-and-ball games played around the world and asked the students to, in partners, each research one of the games and teach the rest of us to play.

On the second day one pair of students taught us The Massachusetts Game. Oh, my. What a blast. Every day after that, no matter what game we played, we finished the day out with the Massachusetts Game. The only way I can describe it is that we were hooked.

We took it a bit farther. We said to ourselves, “What if this game had won out over baseball as the American Pastime? What would it look like today?”

Being the math teacher and researcher that I am, we pushed this question to every limit. We researched, debated, experimented, and eventually came into a consensus. Since that time we have developed what we now call “21st Century Townball.” 

People who play our game don’t go back to baseball. 

We now have a very organized club going on five years strong with no sign of stopping. This September [2017] we have our very first exhibition game with the Bay Area Vintage Baseball League. Something is happening here…

Here is our website:


Researchers have asked, “Why did baseball win out over the Massachusetts game?” This is a research project that I intend to resolve. I know that others of you have already begun this quest, and I would like to offer my services to this end, hopefully as a “digger” with protoball, if you find my cause worthy.

My theories:

1. Baseball was intended to be an “underhand” pitching sport, not an “overhand” pitching sport. Overhand pitching sports work much better with no foul balls (like cricket and TMG). However, in the 19th century, underhand pitching sports were more popular because it was more inclusive. This is one reason baseball won out.

2. Politics and presentation. This has already been documented, regarding the role of the Knickerbockers in dominating the baseball arena just before the turn of the century. I think this point and the politics taking place around this time cannot be overstated with respect to the role it played in baseball taking center stage in this country.

3. Geometry. Baseball is perfect geometrically. The Massachusetts game, as it was played in the 19th century, was not. The version we have reinvented here in Fresno exploits this fact and provides geometric perfection to the last detail. . . .

Our intent is to some day make 21st century townball a national phenomenon.

Is anyone interested in starting a dialogue or in working together on this project?

Thank you,


Daniel Jones
Math Teacher, University High School, California State University, Fresno


 Dan's 5-year update, summer 2022:

"Thanks, Larry.  We are seeing some rapid growth with townball right now.  For the most part, we attribute the growth to the "very looseness of the game", which, as you know, was the case when town ball was played in the 19th century.  People who play townball get hooked quickly, especially those who have had no previous experience with baseball.  I believe that townball may be an answer to the declining interest in bat-and-ball games in this country in recent years.

Here is a summary of what has transpired since you and I last spoke:

 1. Grant More and I started a small business entitled "Twenty-First Century Townball."  The purpose of the business is to ensure the successful growth of townball (we use townball as one word to distinguish it from town ball, two words).  Here is a link to our online store: https://thetownballzone.square.site/

 2. This Spring, Grant and I co-presented at the vintage base ball conference in Detroit.  I am pleased to report that Grant and I had a warm reception with the vintage base ball community at this event. 

3. This year, seven townball teams have formed, six on the West Coast, one in Michigan. 

4. Grant is captain of the Hillsdale People in Hillsdale, Michigan.  The People have had one game so far against the Detroit Base Ball Club.  Grant has several other townball games scheduled with vintage base ball teams this summer.

5. In California, there are now five teams.  In Berkeley, the Bay Area Golden Bears (Thomas Sanchez).  In the Fresno area, the Madera Coyotes (Raul Diaz), the Fresno New York Mutuals (Mark Angeles), the Fresno Haymakers (Josh Triesman), and the Fresno Sundogs (Ajith Weerasinghe). 

6. In Oregon, I am captain of the Newberg Quakers.

7. This year we started the West Coast Townball League.  The league website is here: https://21ctownball.wixsite.com/westcoast

 8. The Newberg Quakers just returned from a barnstorming tour in California.  We played each of the five teams in the West Coast Townball League.  We also played pickup games in Turlock and in San Francisco.