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"Sound" Baseball Played at Ohio School for the Blind +<p><a href=""></a></p>


'Citizens' v Crew of the USN Pinta in Sitka on 4 July 1886 +<p>Sitka <em>Alaskan</em>, July 3, 1886</p>
'Colored' Club of Decatur +<p>Decatur <em>Republican</em>, June 3, 1869</p> <p>Brunson, "Black Baseball, 1858-1900"</p>
'Colored' Club of Newark +<p>The Quincy <em>Daily Whig</em>, Aug. 16, 1876</p>
'Colored' Club of Paducah +<p>The <em>Cairo Daily Bulletin</em>, Sept. 24, 1871</p>
'Ladies' Club of Pensacola +<p>The <em>Bangor Daily Whig</em>, July 12, 1867</p>
'Natives' v 'Haoles' in HI on 4 July 1866 +<p>"A Brief History of Baseball in Hawaii and the Hawaii Winter League," at <a href=""></a>, accessed 11/22/2013.</p> <p>This report does not provide a source. </p>
'Negro' Club of Atlanta +<p><em>Memphis Appeal</em>, Aug. 25, 1867</p>
'colored juveniles' v 'colored juveniles' on 5 November 1867 +<p>The <em>Selma Times and Messenger</em>, Nov. 6, 1867</p>


-2000000c.2 +<p>D. Bramble and D. Lieberman, "XXX," <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Nature,</span> November 18, 2018. </p>
-2500.2 +<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Epic of Gilgamesh,</span> dated as early at 2100 BCE.</p> <p>Mark Pestana, who tipped Protoball off on the Sumerian reference, suggest two texts for further insight: </p> <p>[1] Damrosch, David, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Buried Book: The Loss and Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh</span> (New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2007).  For specific reference to the ball & mallet, page 232. Damrosch’s comment on the primacy of Andrew George’s interpretation: “For Gilgamesh, the starting point is Andrew George’s The Epic of Gilgamesh: A New Translation. . . "This is the best and most complete translation of the epic ever published, including newly discovered passages not included in any other translation.” (Damrosch, page 295)</p> <p>[2] George, Andrew, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Epic of Gilgamesh: A New Translation</span> (London, England: Penguin Books, 1999). This book includes a complete translation of the Standard version, a generous helping of fragments of the Old Babylonian version, plus the Sumerian “ur-texts” of the individual Gilgamesh poems. The quote I included describing the ball game is to be found on page 183.</p> <p> In the <em>Supplemental Tex</em>t, below, we provide an excerpt from a translation by Andrew George from his "Gilgamesh and the Netherworld."  </p>


1086.1 +<p><strong>Note:</strong> This source is Henderson, Robert W., <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Ball, Bat and Bishop: The Origins of Ball Games</span> [Rockport Press, 1947], p. 75.</p>
12th US Infantry v 25th US Infantry on 25 December 1899 +<p>"The Twenty-Fifth Infantry Regiment Takes the Field," National Pastime 15 (1995) pp. 59-64</p>
1393.1 +<p><a href=""></a>, as accessed 9/6/2007.</p>
1400c.1 +<p><em>Norton Anthology of Poetry (</em>third edition, 1983) page 99. </p>
1440c.1 +<p>Lionel Cust, "The Frescoes in the Casa Borromeo at Milan," <em>The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs</em>, Vol. 33, No. 184 (July 1918), 8.  Link to color image:  <a href=""></a></p>
1450.2 +<p>National Stoolball Association website, accessed April 2007.</p>
14th Infantry v 9th Infantry on 15 October 1870 +<p>The New York Clipper, Nov. 5, 1870</p>
1538.1 +<p> </p> <p>Brewster, Paul G., <span style="text-decoration: underline;">American Nonsinging Games</span> [University of Oklahoma Press, Norman OK, 1953] pp. 79-89. Submitted by John Thorn, 6/6/04.  Brewster gives no source for the French dictum, nor for the "later date" when Easter play ceased in England.</p> <p>Bob Tholkes (email of 10/4/2017) found a later source: Dawn Marie Hayes, “Earthly Uses of Heavenly Spaces: Non-Liturgical Activities in Sacred Place”, in <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Studies in Medieval History & Culture</span>, Francis G. Gentry, ed., Routledge, 2003, p. 64. </p> <p> </p>
1540c.2 +<p>Henry Howard (Earl of Surrey), <em>So Cruel a Prison, </em>Norton Anthology of Poetry, 3rd edition, 1983:  from <em>Songes and sonettes, written by the right honourable Lorde Henry Howard, late Earle of Surrey </em>(London, A. R. Tottel, 1557).</p>
1586c.1 +<p>Sir Philip Sydney, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Arcadia</span><span style="text-decoration: underline;">: Sonnets</span> [1622], page 493. <strong>Note:</strong> citation needs confirmation.</p>
1598.4 +<p>A.G. Steel and R. H. Lyttelton, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Cricket,</span> (Longmans Green, London, 1890) 4<sup>th</sup> edition, page 6.</p>
1600c.1 +<p>[A] Guarinoni, Hippolytis, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Greuel der Verwustung der menschlichen Gesschlechts</span> [The horrors of the devastation of the human race], [Ingolstadt, Austrian Empire, 1610], per David Block, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Baseball Before We Knew It</span>, pages 167-168.  See also pp. 100-102 for Block's summary of, and a translation of the Guarinoni material.</p> <p>[B] Source: from page 111 of an unidentified photocopy in the "Origins of Baseball" file at the Giamatti Center of the Baseball Hall of Fame, accessed in 2008. The quoted material is found in a section titled "Rounders and Other Ball Games with Sticks and Bats," pp. 110-111. This section also reports: "Gyula Hajdu sees the origin of <em>round</em> games as follows: 'Round games conserve the memory of ancient castle warfare. A member of the besieged garrison sets out for help, slipping through the camp of the enemy. . . . '" "In Hungary several variants of rounders exist in the countryside."</p> <p>This unidentified source may be W. Andrei and L. Zolnay, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Fun and Games in Old Europe</span> [English translation from Hungarian] (Budapest, 1986), pp. 110-111, as cited in Block, fn 16, page 304. </p>
1609.1 +<p>The 1609 source is Zbigniew Stefanski, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Memorial Commercatoris</span> [A Merchant's Memoirs], (Amsterdam, 1625), as cited in David Block's <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Baseball Before We Knew It</span>, page 101. Stefanski was a skilled Polish workingman who wrote a memoir of his time in the Jamestown colony: an entry for 1609 related the Polish game of <em>pilka palantowa</em>(bat ball). Another account by a scholar reported adds that "the playfield consisted of eight bases not four, as in our present day game of baseball." If true, this would imply that the game involved running as well as batting.</p> <p>1975 Letter:  from Matthew Baranski to the Baseball Hall ofFame, March 23, 1975.  [Found in the Origins file at the Giamatti Center.]  Matthew  Baranski himself cites <span style="text-decoration: underline;">First Poles in America1608-1958</span>, published by the Polish Falcons of America, Pittsburgh, but  unavailable online as of 7/28/09.  We have not confirmed that sighting. </p> <p>See also David Block, "Polish Workers Play Ball at Jamestown Virginia: An Early Hint of Continental Europe's Influence on Baseball," <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Base Ball (Origins Issue)</span>, Volume 5, number 1 (Spring 2011), pp.5-9.</p> <p> </p>
1621.1 +<p>Bradford, William, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Of Plymouth Plantation</span>, [Harvey Wish, ed., Capricorn Books, 1962], pp 82 - 83. Henderson cites<em> Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society</em>, 1856. See his ref 23. Full text supplied by John Thorn, 6/25/2005. Also cited and discussed  by Thomas L. Altherr, “There is Nothing Now Heard of, in Our Leisure Hours, But Ball, Ball, Ball,” <span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Cooperstown Symposium on Baseball and American Culture</span> 1999 (McFarland, 2000), p. 190</p>
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