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-2500.2 +<p>Mark Pestana, who submitted this item to Protoball, observes, "Polo?  Croquet? Golf? Rounders?  I think it's interesting that the spot of the ball is marked at the end of the first day."</p> <p>See Mark's full coverage in the Supplemental Text, below.</p>


1086.1 +<p>Henderson doesn't exactly endorse the idea that the cited game, "bittle-battle," is a ball game [or if it is, could it be a form of soule?] He says that one [unnamed] author claims that bittle-battle is a form of stoolball. I saw only two Henderson refs to stoolball, ref 72 [Grantham] and ref 149 [London Magazine]. One of them may be Henderson's source for the 1086 stoolball claim. I don't see a Henderson ref to the Domesday text itself, but then, it probably isn't found at local lending libraries.</p> <p>The <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect</span> [1875] reportedly gives "bittle-battle" as another name for stoolball. It is believed that "bittle" meant a wooden milk bowl and some have speculated that a bowl may have been used as a paddle to deflect a thrown ball from the target stool, while others speculate that the bowl may have been the target itself.</p>
1440c.1 +<p><strong>Note: </strong>This drawing is listed as "contemporary" on the premise that it was meant to depict ballplaying in the 1400s.</p>
1494c.1 +<p><strong>Note:</strong> We need better sources for the Columbus story.</p>
1500s.2 +<p>The Wotton account was written by John Smyth of Nibley (1567-1640) in his <em>Berkeley</em> <em>Manuscripts</em> [Sir John McLean, ed., Gloucester, Printed by John Bellows, 1883]. Smyth's association with Berkeley Castle began in 1589, and the Manuscripts were written in about 1618, so it is not a first-hand report.</p>
1540c.2 +<p>We are not certain that "palm play" could have been a baserunning game.  It may be an Anglicized form of <em>jeu de paume,</em> a likely French antecedent to tennis.</p> <p>The reference to "large grene courtes" in the full ball-play stanza suggests a tennis or handball-type pastime.</p> <p> </p>
1586c.1 +<p>Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586) died at age 31 in 1586.</p> <p>As of October 2012, this early stoolball ref. is the only one I see that can be interpreted as describing baserunning in stoolball - but it still may merely describe running by a fielder, not a batter. (LMc, Oct/2012)</p> <p>Sydney's mother was the sister of Robert Dudley, noted in item #[[1500s.2]] above as a possible stoolball player in the time of Eliizabeth I.</p>
1609.1 +<p>Per Maigaard's 1941 survey of "battingball games" includes a Polish variant of long ball, but does not mention pilka palantowa by name. However, pilka palantowa may merely be a longer/older term for <em>palant</em>, the Polish form of long ball still played today.</p> <p>The likelihood that pilka palantowa left any legacy in America is fairly low, since the Polish glassblowers returned home after a year and there is no subsequent mention of any similar game in colonial Virginia</p>
1630.4 +<p>Sherston, England is in the southwest of England, near the Cotswolds and about 20 miles NE of Bristol England.</p>
1660c.3 +<p>(Jacobs) says that unfortunately "balslaen" has been translated as cricket but it simply means hitting the ball.</p>
1661.1 +<p>David further asks: "could it be that this is the source of the term putting "English" on a ball?"</p>
1666.1 +<p>Writing of Bunyan in 1885, Washington Gladden revealed that as a youth, "[t]he four chief sins of which he was guilty were dancing, ringing the bells of the parish church, playing at tip-cat, and reading the history of Sir Bevis of Southampton." Letter to the Editor, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Century Magazine</span>, Volume 30 (May-October 1885), page 334. <strong><br /></strong></p>
1680.3 +<p>John Bunyan (1628-1688) was a Baptist preacher and author of <span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Pilgrim's Progress</span> (1678 and 1684).</p>
1700c.2 +<p><strong>Note:</strong> This book is in the form of a chronology. Barber gives no source for the wicket report.</p>
1706.2 +<p>For more on cat-and-dog, see</p>
1720c.4 +<p>Scarborough Maine is about 8 miles SW of Portland ME (then still a part of Massachusetts).</p>
1725c.1 +<p>While this is the first known reference to ballplaying on Boston Common, there are several later ones.  See Brian Turner, "Ballplaying and Boston Common; A Town Playground for Boys . . . and Men,"  <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Base Ball</span> Journal (Special Issue on Origins), Volume 5, number 1 (Spring 2011), pages 21-24.</p>
1729.1 +<p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Brian Turner notes that this find "predates by 33 years the 1762 ban on bat-and-ball (along with foot-ball, cricket, and throwing snow-balls and stones in the streets of Salem -- see entry [[1762.2]]).  It also predates by two decades a reference in a 1750s French & Indian war diary kept by Benjamin Glazier of </span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Ipswich."  (See entry [[1758.1]])</span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;">Gilman was from a leading family of New Hampshire, mainly centered in Exeter, a bit inland from Portsmouth, where Elwyn gave a description of 1810's "bat & ball," in which he certainly seems to name a specific game.  (See entry [[1810s.9]]).  Seccomb, also spelled Seccombe, was born and lived in Medford, Mass., and later in life wound up in Nova Scotia -- not because he was a Loyalist, but for other reasons.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;">Brian notes that "</span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;">By “Batchelors,” Gilman probably means students pursuing a bachelor’s degree, hence the categorization of this entry under "Youth."  For over two centuries, 14 was the age at which boys entered Harvard." (Email of 9/1/2014.)</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;"> </span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"> </span></p>
1732.1 +<p>Protoball doesn't know of other early references to pop-fly hitting.</p>
1744.1 +<p>For a recent review of the 1744 cricket rules and their relevance to base ball, see Beth Hise, "How is it, Umpire?  The 1744 Laws of Cricket and Their Influence on the Development of Baseball in America," <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Base Ball</span> (Special Issue on Origins), Volume 5, number 1 (Spring 2011), pages 25-31.</p>
1749.2 +<p>Block points out that this very early reference to base-ball Indicates that the game was played by adults -- the Prince was 38 years old in 1749, further weakening the view that English base-ball was played mainly by juveniles in its early history.</p> <p>The location of the game was Walton-on-Thames in Surrey.</p> <p> Comparing the 1749 game with modern baseball, Block estimates that the bass-ball was likely played on a smaller scale, with a much softer ball, with batted ball propelled the plaayers' hands, not with a bat, and that runners could be put out by being "plugged" (hit with a thrown  ball) between bases.</p> <p> </p>
1750s.3 +<p>The game described by "X" resembles the MA game as it was to be codified a year later except: [a] "a good catcher would frequently take the ball before the bat cold strike it," [b] the runner "was allowed either a pace or jump to the base which he was striving t reach," [c] the bound rule was in effect, [d] all-out-side-out innings were used, [e] the ball was "softer and more spongy" than 1850's ball, [f] the bats were square, flat, or round," and [g] there was a second field layout, with three bases. [This variation reminds one of cricket, wicket, and "long town or "long-town-ball, except for the impressive 150-foot distance to the second base]."</p>
1755.3 +<p>Block points out that this diary entry is (as of 2008) among the first four appearances of the term "base ball," [see #1744.2 and #1748.1 above, and #1755.4 below].  It shows adult and mixed-gender play, and indicates that "at this time, baseball was more of a social phenomenon than a sporting one. . . . played for social entertainment rather than serious entertainment." [Ibid, page 9.]</p> <p>William Bray is well known as a diarist and local historian in Surrey.  His diary, in manuscript, came to light in England during the 2008 filming of Ms Sam Marchiano's award-winning documentary, "Base Ball Discovered."</p> <p> </p>
1755.6 +<p>Writing in 2011, Brian Turner discerns that "bat and ball" maybe the name of a defined game, and not just a generic term.  See Brian Turner, "Bat and Ball: A Distinct Game or a Generic Term?", <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Base Ball</span> Journal (Special Issue on Origins), Volume 5, number 1 (Spring 2011), pages 37-40.  He finds several uses of the phrase in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, most of them north and east of Boston.</p>
1758.1 +<p>Fort Ticonderoga is about 100 miles N of Albany NY at the southern end of Lake Champlain.  Ipswich MA is about 10 miles N of Salem MA.</p>
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