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-2000000c.2 +<p>"We are very confidence that strong selection for running</p>
-2500.2 +<p>Gilgamesh was a celebrated Sumerian king who probably reigned 2800-2500 BCE.  His legend appears in several later poems.  </p> <p>In one, he drops a <em>mikku </em>and a<em> pukku</em>, used in a ceremony or game, into the underworld.</p> <p>One scholar, Andrew George, suggests that the objects were a ball and a mallet.  George translates the game played as something like a polo game where humans are ridden instead of horses.</p> <p>When the two objects are lost, Gilgamesh is said in this interpretation to weep;</p> <p>'O my ball!  O my mallet!</p> <p>O my ball, which I have not enjoyed to the full!</p> <p>O my mallet, with which I have not had my fill of play!'</p> <p> </p>

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1086.1 +<p>Stool ball, a stick and ball game and a forerunner of rounders and cricket, is apparently mentioned in the Domesday Book as "bittle-battle."</p> <p> </p>
1100s.1 +<p>Henderson: "The testimony of Beleth and Durandus, both eminently qualified witnesses, clearly indicates that in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the ball had found a place for itself in the Easter celebrations of the Church." In fact, Beleth and Durandus had both opposed the practice, seeing it as the intrusion of pagan rites into church rites. "There are some Churches in which it is customary for the Bishops and Archbishops to play in the monasteries with those under them, even to stoop to the game of ball" [Beleth, 1165]. "In certain places in our country, prelates play games with their own clerics on Easter in the cloisters, or in the Episcopal Palaces, even so far as to descend to the game of ball" [Durandus, 1286].</p> <p><strong>Note:</strong> This source appears to be Henderson, Robert W., <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Ball, Bat and Bishop: The Origins of Ball Games</span> [Rockport Press, 1947], pp. 37-38. Page 37 refers to an 1165 prohibition and page 38 mentions 12<sup>th</sup> and 13<sup>th</sup> Century Easter rites. Henderson identifies two sources for the page 38 statement: Beleth, J., "Rationale Divinorum Officiorum," in Migne, J. P., <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Patrologiae Curius Completus</span>, Ser 2, Vol. 106, pp. 575-591 [Paris, 1855], and Durandus, G., "Rationale Divinorum Officiorum," Book VI, Ch 86, Sect. 9 [Rome, 1473]...Henderson does not say that these rites involved the use of sticks.</p>
1189.1 +<p>There is "an unconfirmed report which was published in the beginning of the Century quoting one Joseph Iscanus, of Exeter, as having referred to stoolball in 1189, but no satisfactory evidence that this quotation was genuine." National Stoolball Association, "A Brief History of Stoolball," page 2. This mimeo, available in NSA files, has no date or author, but has one internal reference to an 1989 source, so it must be fairly recent. It contains no hint on the source of the 1189 claim or how it has been assessed. <b>Note: </b> Is it now possible to further pursue this claim using online resources? The 1189 claim appears nowhere else in available writings about stoolball.</p> <p>However, some cite a Joseph Iscanus couplet: "The youth at cricks did play/Throughout the livelong [or "merry"] day/" as an indicator of early cricket. However, the online source of this rhyme does not give a source. Very murky, no? [The rhyme is quoted as early as the 1860 edition of <u>The Cricketer’s Manual</u>, and ten years earlier in Bell’s Life in a letter from “Alexis” on the subject “When Was Cricket Invented?” ] <b>Query:</b> what do leading cricket historians say of this alleged reference?</p>
1200s.1 +<p>"The [1301 - see below] illustration is a very early depiction of the game we know as baseball, but it's probably not the first. In 1964, a writer named Harry Simmons cited an English bat and ball picture from a genealogical roll of the Kings of England up to Henry III, who died in 1269."</p> <p><u>Baltimore Sun</u> article on the Ghistelle Calendar [see entry for 1301], April 6, 1999, page 1E.</p>
1205.1 +<p>Scholars report that the <u>Chronicle of Britain</u> [1205] contained the words "Summe heo driuen balles wide . . ." which they see as "the first known use of the word <i>ball</i> in the sense of a globular body that is played with." The source? Old Norse, by way of Middle English. [Old High German had used <i>ballo</i> and <i>pallo</i>, but the English didn't use "ball" in those days.] The source does not say whether people in England used some other term for their rolling playthings prior to 1205.</p> <p>Source: Wikipedia entry on "ball," accessed 5/31/2006.</p>
1255.1 +<p>The book <u>Spain</u><u>: A History in Art</u> by Bradley Smith (Doubleday, 1971) includes a plate that appears to show "several representations of baseball figures and some narrative." The work is dated to 1255, the period of King Alfonso.</p> <p>Email from Ron Gabriel, July 10, 2007. Ron also has supplied a quality color photocopy of this plate, which was the subject of his presentation at the 1974 SABR convention. <b>Note:</b> can we specify the painting and its creator? Can we learn how baseball historians and others interpret this artwork?</p>
1299.1 +<p>Cashman, Richard, "Cricket," in David Levinson and Karen Christopher, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present</span> [Oxford University Press, 1996], page 87.</p>
1300s.1 +<p>Trevithick, Alan, "Trapball," in David Levinson and Karen Christopher, <u>Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present</u> [Oxford University Press, 1996], page 421.</p>
1300s.3 +<p>"Stoolball is a ball game that dates back to the 14<sup>th</sup> century, originating in Sussex [in southern England]. It may be an ancestor of cricket (a game it resembles), baseball, and rounders. Traditionally it was played be milkmaids who used their milking stools as 'wickets.' . . ." Later forms of the game involved running between two wickets, but "[o]riginally the batsman simply had to defend his stool from each ball with his hand and would score a point for each delivery until the stool was hit. The game later evolved to include runs and bats."</p> <p>Source: Wikipedia entry on "Stoolball," accessed 1/25/2007. <b>Note:</b> this source does not credit bittle-battle [see entry 1086.1] as an earlier form of stoolball. It gives no citations for the evidence of the founding date. The Wikipedia entry is compatible with entry #1330.1, below, but evidently does not credit 1330 as the likely time of stoolball's appearance.</p>
1301.1 +<p>A manuscript obtained in 1999 by the Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore appears to show a batted-ball game played by two young persons. The manuscript, called the Calendar of the Ghistelles Hours, dates from 1301. It is a small monthly calendar of saints' days from a monastery in the town of Ghistelles, in southwestern Flanders. The illustration is for the month of September.</p> <p>Schoettler, Carl, "The Old, Old, Old Ball Game," <u>Baltimore</u> <u>Sun</u>, April 6 1999, page 1E.</p>
1310.1 +<p>According to an otherwise unidentified clip in the Origins file at the Giamatti Center, an AP article datelined Bucharest Romania [and which appeared in the <i>Oneonta Times</i> on March 29, 1990], the still popular Romanian game of oina can be traced back to a [unspecified] document dating to the year 1310. The game itself "was invented by shepherds in the first century."</p> <p>The article is evidently based on an interview with Cristian Costescu, who sees baseball as "the American pastime derived from the ancient game of oina." Oina reportedly has eleven players per side, an all-out-side-out rule, tossed pitches, nine bases describing a total basepath of 120 yards, plugging of baserunners, the opportunity for the fielding side to score points, and a bat described as similar to a cricket bat. Costescu is reported to have served as head of the Romanian Oina Federation in the years when baseball was banned in Romania as "a capitalist sport."</p> <p>The <i>Oneonta Times</i> headline is "Play Oina! Romanians Say Their Game Inspired Creation of Baseball." <b>Note:</b> Can we find additional documentation of oina's rules and history? Is the 1310 documentation available in English translation? Have others followed the recent fate of oina and the work of Costescu?</p>
1310c.2 +<p>A 1915 book on ancient British schools includes a drawing dated circa 1310. It shows two players, one clad in a garment with broad horizontal stripes. Both players hold clubs, and the player in stripes appears ready to swing at a melon-sized ball. The other player appears to be preparing to fungo the ball . . . or, conceivably, toss it with his left hand, to the striped player. The illustration's caption is "A Game of Ball, Stripes vs. Plain, c. 1310." The British Museum's documentation: MS Royal 10 E. iv, f. 94 b. </p> <p>Posted by Mark Aubrey to the 19CBB listserve on 1/10/2008. The 1915 source, available in full text on Google Books, is A. F. Leach, <i>The Schools of Medieval England</i> (Macmillan, New York, 1915), on the unnumbered page following p. 140.</p>
1330.1 +<p>"Stoolball was played in England as early as 1330, when William Pagula, Vicar of Winkfield, near Windsor, wrote in Latin a poem of instructions to parish priests, advising them to forbid the playing of all games of ball in churchyards: "Bats and bares and suche play/Out of chyrche-yorde put away."</p> <p>Henderson, Robert W., <u>Ball, Bat and Bishop: The Origins of Ball Games</u> [Rockport Press, 1947], p. 74. <b>Note:</b> The Vicar's caution was translated in 1450 by a Canon, John Myrc. Henderson's ref 120 is Mirk [sic], J., "Instructions to Parish Priests," <u>Early English Text Society</u>, Old Series 31, p. 11 [London, 1868]. A contemporary of Myrc in 1450 evidently identified the Vicar's targets as including stoolball. Block [p. 165] identifies the original author as William de Pagula. Writing in 1886, T. L. Kington Oliphant identifies "bares" as prisoner's base: "There is the term "bace pleye," whence must come the "prisoner's base;" this in Myrc had appeared as the game of "bares." Kington Oliphant does not elaborate on this claim, and does not comment on the accompanying term "bats" in the original. The 1886 reference was provided by John Thorn, 2/24/2008</p>
1344.1 +<p>"A manuscript of 1344 in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (No. 264) shows a game of club and ball. One player throws that ball to another who holds a vicious-looking club. He defends a round object which resembles a stool but with a base instead of legs. . . ". "In the course of time a second stool was added, which obviously made a primitive form of cricket. Now a stool was also called a "cricket" and it is possible that the name cricket came from the three-legged stool . . . " "We may summarize: The game and name of cricket stem back to ancient games played with a curved stick and ball, starting with <i>la soule</i>, and evolving in England through stoolball . . .".</p> <p>Henderson, Robert W., <u>Ball, Bat and Bishop: The Origins of Ball Games</u> [Rockport Press, 1947], pp. 130-131. Henderson's ref 17 is Bodleian Library, <u>Douce MSS</u> 264, ff 22, 44, 63.<b> </b> Cox's 1903 edition of Strutt includes this drawing and its reference. <b>Note:</b> do other observers agree with Henderson on whether and how stoolball evolved into cricket?</p>
1363.1 +<p>Edward III wrote to the Sheriff of Kent, and evidently sheriffs throughout England. Noting a relative neglect of the useful art of archery, the King said he was thereby, on festival days, "forbidding, all and single, on our orders, to toy in any way with these games of throwing stones, wood, or iron, playing handball, football, "stickball," or hockey, . . . which are worthless, under pain of imprisonment." The translator uses "stickball" as a translation of the Latin "pila cacularis," and suggests that it might have been an early form of cricket. We might also ask whether it was referring to early stoolball.</p> <p>A. R. Myers, <i>English Historical Documents</i> (Routledge, 1996), page 1203. [Viewed online 10/16/08]. Provided in email from John Thorn, 2/27/2008. Myers' citation is "Rymer, Foedera, III, ii, from Close Roll, 37 Edward III [Latin]."</p> <p><b>Caveat:</b> The content of this entry resembles that of #1365.1 below, and both refer to a restriction imposed by Edward III. However that entry, stemming from Strutt, refers to "club-ball" instead of "stick-ball," and identifies the Latin as "pilam bacculoream," not "pila cacularis." It is possible that both refer to the same source. Strutt’s text reads: “The recreations prohibited by proclamation in the reign of Edward III., exclusive of the games of chance, are thus specified; throwing of stones, wood, or iron….” The accompanying footnote reads: “<em>Pilam manualtm, ptdinam, el bacculoream, et ad cambucam</em>, etc.” Also: the letter to Kent is elsewhere dated 1365, which could be consistent with Edward III's 37<sup>th</sup> year under the crown, but Myers uses 1363.</p> <p><b>Note:</b> this entry replaced the former entry #1365.1: "In 1365 the sheriffs had to forbid able-bodied men playing ball games as, instead, they were to practice archery on Sundays and holidays." Source: Hassall, W. O., [compiler], "How They Lived: An Anthology of Original Accounts Written Before 1485" [Blackwell, Oxford University Press, 1962], page 285. Submitted by John Thorn, 10/12/2004.</p>
1365.1 +<p>"The recreations prohibited by proclamation in the reign of Edward III, exclusive of the games of chance, are thus specified; the throwing of stones, wood, or iron; playing at hand-ball, foot-ball, club-ball, and camucam, which I take to have been a species of goff . . . ." Edward III reigned from 1327 to 1377. The actual term for "club-ball" in the proclamation was, evidently, "bacculoream."</p> <p>This appears to be one of only two direct references to "club-ball" in the literature. See #1794.2, below.</p> <p><strong>Caveat</strong>: David Block argues that, contrary to Strutt's contention [see #1801.1, below], club ball may not be the common ancestor of cricket and other ballgames. See David Block, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Baseball Before We Knew It,</span> pages 105-107 and 183-184. Block says that "pilam bacculoream" translates as "ball play with a stick or staff." <strong>Note:</strong> We seem not to really know what "camucam" was. Nor, of course, how club ball was played, since the term could have denoted a form of tennis or field hockey or and early form of stoolball or cricket. Edward II had issued a ban of his own in 1314, regarding football.</p>
1385.1 +<p>A letter written by Robert Braybroke laid out the palpable risks of ball-playing: "Certain [boys], also, good for nothing in their insolence and idleness, instigated by evil minds and busying themselves rather in doing harm than good, throw and shoot stones, arrows, and different kinds of missiles at the rooks, pigeons, and other birds nesting in the walls and porches of the church and perching [there]. Also they play ball inside and outside the church and engage in other destructive games there, breaking and greatly damaging the glass windows and the stone images of the church . . . .This they do not without great offense to God and our church and to the prejudice and injury of us as well as to the grave peril of their souls." And the sanction for such play? "We . . . proclaim solemnly that any malefactors whatever of this kind [including churchyard merchants as well as young ballplayers] whom it is possible to catch in the aforesaid actions after this our warning have been and are excommunicated . . . ."</p> <p>Crow, Martin M., and Clair C. Olson, eds., "Chaucer's World" [Columbia University Press, New York, 1948], pp. 48-49. Submitted by John Thorn, 10/12/2004.</p>
1393.1 +<p>According to a 2007 article in a Canadian magazine, there is poetry in which a milkmaid calls to another, "Oi, Rosie, coming out to Potter's field for a whack at the old stool?" The article continues: "The year was 1393. The place was Sussex . . . the game was called stoolball, which was probably a direct descendant of stump-ball".</p> <p>The article, by Ruth Tendulkar, is titled "The Great-Grandmother of Baseball and Cricket," and appeared in the May/June 2007 issue of <em>The Canadian Newcomers Magazine.</em> As of 2007, we have been unable to find additional source details from the author or the magazine.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p>
1400c.1 +<p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">A well-known and still-sung medieval English carol (in this case, not a Christmas carol), is <em>The Bitter Withy</em> (withy is the willow tree).  The carol is dated to around 1400.</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">As it fell out on a holy day.</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The drops of rain did fall, did fall,</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">Our Saviour asked leave of his mother Mary</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">  If he might go play at ball.</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">"To play at ball, my own dear son,</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">   It's time you was going or gone,</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">But be sure let me hear no complain of you</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">   At night when you do come home."</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">. . .</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">John Bowman reports that "The poem then tells how the boy Jesus tricks some boys into drowning and is spanked by his mother with a willow branch.  Although I do not know what scholars have to say about the ball game, it is clear that the upper-class boys regard it as lower-class!"</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="font-size: medium;">The full selection, and John's email, are shown below.<br /></span></span></p>
1440c.1 +<p>In a ground floor room at the Casa Borromeo in Milan, Italy is a room with wall murals depicting the amusements of Fifteenth Century nobility.  One of the images depicts five noble women playing some sort of bat and ball game.  One woman holds a bat and is preparing to hit a ball to a group of four women who prepare to catch the ball using the folds of their dresses.  This <em>Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs</em> published an article about the Casa Borromeo frescoes in 1918 and included a black and white photo of the female ball players.  A color version of the fresco is available online.</p>
1450.1 +<p>David Block, <u>Baseball Before We Knew It</u> [page 165], cites the Myrc work, "early poetic instruction of priests," as "How thow schalt thy paresche preche," London. It warns "Bal and bares and suche play/ Out of chyrcheyorde put a-way." A note reportedly inserted by another author included among the banned games "tenessyng handball, fott ball stoil ball and all manner other games out churchyard." <b>Note:</b> can we determine when the "other author" wrote in "stoil ball? This may count as the first time "stool ball" [virtually] appeared.</p>
1450.2 +<p>"[Stoolball] is mentioned in the classic book <em>Don Quixote."</em></p> <p> </p>
1470c.1 +<p>"In al this world nis a murier lyf/Thanne is a yong man wythouten a wyf,/For he may lyven wythouten strif/In every place wher-so he go.</p> <p>"In every place he is loved over alle/Among maydens grete and smale-/In daunsyng, in pipyngs, and rennyng at the balle,/In every place wher-so he go.</p> <p>"They leten lighte by housebonde-men/Whan they at the balle renne;/They casten ther love to yonge men/In every place wher-so they go.</p> <p>"Then seyn maydens, "Farewel, Jakke,/Thy love is pressed al in thy pak;/Thou berest thy love bihynde thy back,/In every place wher-so thou go."</p> <p>Robert Stevick, ed., <span style="text-decoration: underline;">One Hundred Middle English Lyrics</span> (U of Illinois Press, 1994), page 141. Posted to 19CBB on 11/14/2008 by Richard Hershberger. Richard reports that Stevick dates this poem—#81 of the 100 collected in this volume—to c. 1470. He interprets the lyric's 'running at the ball' as 'stool ball, probably,' but stow ball [resembling field hockey] seems apter. Richard also points out that "for the sake of precision, it should be noted that this volume is intended for student use and normalizes the spellings."</p>
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